Most transition metals differ from the metals of Groups 1, 2, and 13 in that they are capable of forming more than one cation with different ionic charges.
Ionic formation for transition metals is complicated by the fact that these elements have unfilled inner d shells. Although the next higher s orbitals are actually at a lower energy level than the d level, these s electrons are the ones that are removed during ionization.
Uses for Transition Metals
Because there are so many metals in this group, there are a wide variety of uses. Many of the metals are used in electronics, while others (such as gold and silver) are used in monetary systems. Iron is a versatile structural material. Cobalt, nickel, platinum, and other metals are employed as catalysts in a number of chemical reactions. Zinc is a significant component of batteries.
Transition metals have unfilled inner d electron shells.
Ions form primarily through loss of s electrons.
Many transition metals can form more than one ion.
Transition metals have a wide variety of applications.