a portion of the wonders that added to the making of our advanced world step by step developed in this period, and particularly so from the mid-fifteenth century onwards.. Two further developments in world history created a context for what has been called ‘modernisation’. These were the Industrial Revolution and a progression of political transformations that changed subjects into nationals, starting with the American Revolution (1776-81) and the French Revolution (1789-94). For long it was trusted that British industrialisation gave the model to industrialisation in different nations. The discussion of Theme 9 will show how historians have begun to question some of the earlier ideas about the Industrial Revolution. Every nation drew upon the encounters of different countries, without essentially replicating any model. In Britain, for instance, coal and cotton textile industries were developed in the first phase of industrialisation, while the invention of railways initiated the second stage of that process. In different nations, for example, Russia, which started to industrialize substantially later (from the late nineteenth century onwards), the railroad and other overwhelming industry developed in the underlying stage of industrialisation itself. Likewise, the role of the state, and of banks, in industrialisation has differed from country to country.
European forces started to colonize parts of America and Asia and South Africa a long time before the Industrial Revolution. . Theme 10 tells you the story of what European settlers did to the native peoples of America and Australia. The bourgeois mentality of the settlers made them buy and sell everything, including land and water. But the natives, who appeared uncivilised to European Americans, asked, ‘If you do not own the freshness of the air and the sparkle of the water, how can one buy them?’ The natives did not feel the need to own land, fish or animals. They had no desire to commodify them; if things needed to be exchanged, they could simply be gifted. Quite obviously, the natives and the Europeans represented competing notions of civilisation. The former did not allow the European deluge to wipe out their cultures
although the US and Canadian governments of the mid-twentieth century desired natives to ‘join the mainstream’ and the Australian authorities of the same period attempted to simply ignore their traditions and culture.
As with industrialisation, so with paths to modernisation. Differentsocieties have evolved their distinctive modernities. The Japanese and Chinese cases are exceptionally informative in this regard.remaining free of frontier control and accomplished genuinely fast financial and modern advance all through the twentieth century. The rebuilding of the Japanese economy after a humiliating defeat in the Second World War should not be seen as a mere post-war miracle. As Theme 11 appears, it came about because of specific picks up that had just been expert in the nineteenth and mid twentieth hundreds of years. Did you know, for instance, that by 1910 tuition fees for studying at a primary school had more or less ended and enrolment had become universal? The Japanese way to modernisation all things considered, similar to that of some other nation, has had its own particular pressures: those amongst popular government and militarism, ethnic patriotism and community country building and between what many Japanese describe as ‘tradition’ and ‘westernisation’.