is a relatively new laboratory science which encompasses a variety of procedures and techniques. Simply stated, tissue culture is the method by which plant and animal cells and tissues are grown in a sterile media.
in nearly all phases of agriculture with tremendous possibilities. For example, in the food industry tissue culture provides means by which protein-rich sweeteners are being developed for baked goods, jams, ice cream, and candies. This will raise the nutritional value of these foods. Aided by tissue culture plant pathologists have created experimental bacteria that inhibit frost formation on plant leaves. Soon strawberries and other tender crops will be able to sustain temporary periods of low temperatures without damaging the crops. Scientists have made spectacular advancements through tissue culture researchers, and now are working on vegetables like tomatoes that withstand herbicide sprays and thrive in salty soils. Corn hybrids capable of producing their own nitrogen fertilizer and Super grains that tolerate extended drought.
is more widely used in commercial horticulture than in any other area of agriculture. It was the orchid industry, that more than 25 years ago first used tissue culture on a large scale. Orchids are notoriously slow to reproduce, and their seeds produce variable plants to compound the problem.
produces genetically identical plants. These plants are economical, requires less labor space and convenient to maintain than following traditional methods, for example, one grower uses tissue culture to produce1000 daylilies each week on just 30 square feet of shelf space. Another grower using conventional propagation methods would need 1/2 acre to produce the same number of daylilies.
- We’ve seen the tissue culture as having an important impact in the field of agriculture, we’ve seen several important advantages of production with tissue-culture these include
- Improved propagation efficiency.
- the development of pathogen-free planting stock.
- the capability of storing germplasm for later use.
- Propagation by tissue culture also produces plants that are the exact replicate of the mother stock.
- Tissue culture labs vary in size and sophistication however all labs share several basic features whether large small it’s most important that aseptic working conditions are provided.
- That means the laboratory must be free of bacteria, fungi, and other microorganisms.
- All working surfaces tools and equipment should be regularly sterilized and kept free of contamination that may hinder plant growth.
- Typically, a tissue culture lab consists of three workspaces
- Preparation area.
- Transfer room
- Growth room
- Propagation space
- Labor and maintenance.
- The needs are dramatically lessened and vast quantities of pathogen-free plants can be produced in a relatively short period of time.
- With limited mother stock, the procedure isn’t affected by the changing seasons because work is done on the cellular level and not with the whole organism.
- Tissue culture offers an a time-saving alternative to conventional crossbreeding programs and makes combinations of totally unrelated plants possible.
- It’s also an efficient means by which genetic material can be stored for future study.
- But there are stumbling blocks to preventing the more widespread use of tissue culture.
Drawbacks of the tissue culture are as followed:
- It’s evident that startup costs for a facility and equipment can be substantial also skilled labor is needed to ensure profitable results.
- Plants produced by tissue culture are an issue such as they are quite small and must be given time to acclimate to conditions outside the lab.
- Any mistake at any stage of the procedure can cause contamination or genetic aberrations, ruining the crop