Here are a number of common separation techniques:
Chromatography is the separation of a mixture by passing it in solution or suspension or as a vapor (as in gas chromatography) through a medium in which the components move at different rates. Thin-layer chromatography is a special type of chromatography used for separating and identifying mixtures that are or can be colored, especially pigments.
Distillation is an effective method to separate mixtures comprised of two or more pure liquids. Distillation is a purification process where the components of a liquid mixture are vaporized and then condensed and isolated. In simple distillation, a mixture is heated and the most volatile component vaporizes at the lowest temperature.
Evaporation is a technique used to separate out homogenous mixtures where there is one or more dissolved solids. This method drives off the liquid components from the solid components. The process typically involves heating the mixture until no more liquid remains, Prior to using this method, the mixture should only contain one liquid component, unless it is not important to isolate the liquid components.
Filtration is a separation method used to separate out pure substances in mixtures comprised of particles some of which are large enough in size to be captured with a porous material. Particle size can vary considerably, given the type of mixture.
Mixtures can be separated using a variety of techniques.
Chromatography involves solvent separation on a solid medium.
Distillation takes advantage of differences in boiling points.
Evaporation removes a liquid from a solution to leave a solid material.
Filtration separates solids of different sizes.
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