Eukaryotic cells have many specific functions, so it can be said that a cell is like a factory.
The different parts of the cell are called organelles, which means “small organs.” All organelles are found in eukaryotic cells. Prokaryotic cells are “simpler” than eukaryotic cells.
Below are the main organelles found in eukaryotic cells ;
1.The nucleus of a cell is like a safe containing the factory’s trade secrets. The nucleus contains the genetic material (DNA), the information needed to build thousands of proteins.
2.The mitochondria are the powerhouses of the cell. Mitochondria are the organelles where cellular energy is produced, providing the energy needed to power chemical reactions. This process, known as cellular respiration, produces energy is in the form of ATP (adenosine triphosphate). Cells that use a lot of energy may have thousands of mitochondria.
3.Vesicles are small membrane bound sacs that transport materials around the cell and to the cell membrane.
The vacuoles are like storage centers. Plant cells have larger vacuoles than animal cells. Plants store water and nutrients in their large central vacuoles.
4.Lysosomes are like the recycling trucks that carry waste away from the factory. Lysosomes have digestive enzymes that break down old molecules into parts that can be recycled.
5.In both eukaryotes and prokaryotes, ribosomes are the non-membrane bound organelles where proteins are made. Ribosomes are like the machines in the factory that produce the factory’s main product. Proteins are the main product of the cell.
6.The Golgi apparatus works like a mail room. The Golgi apparatus receives proteins from the rough ER and puts “shipping addresses” on them. The Golgi then packages the proteins into vesicles and sends them to the right place in the cell or to the cell membrane. Some of these proteins are secreted from the cell (they exit the cell); others are placed into the cell membrane.
Organelles of a eukaryotic cell
7.Eukaryotic cells contain special compartments surrounded by membranes, called organelles.
Also, the cytoskeleton gives the cell its shape, and the flagella helps the cell to move. Prokaryotic cells may also have flagella.
The nucleus stores the genetic information.
The vacuoles are needed for storage.
The lysosomes recycle waste.
The cytoskeleton provides the shape of the cell.
The ribosomes produce proteins.
The rough ER is covered with ribosomes and makes proteins, while the smooth ER makes lipids.
The Golgi apparatus packages proteins.