Particles meet up to make an atom with the goal that electrical charges are adjusted; the positive charges adjust the negative charges and the particle has no electrical charge. To balance electrical charge, an atom may share its electron with another atom, give it away, or receive an electron from another atom.
The joining of ions to make molecules is called chemical bonding. There are three main types of chemical bonds that are important in our discussion of minerals and rocks:
Ionic bond: Electrons are transferred between atoms. An ion will give one or more electrons to another ion.
Covalent bonding is prevalent in organic compounds. In fact, your body is held together by electrons shared by carbons and hydrogens! Covalent bonds are also very strong, meaning it takes a lot of energy to break them apart.
Hydrogen bond: These weak, intermolecular bonds are formed when the positive side of one polar molecule is attracted to the negative side of another polar molecule.
The positive side of the molecule is attracted to negative ions and the negative side is attracted to positive ions.
In an ionic bond, an atom gives away one or more electrons to another atom.
In a covalent bond, two atoms share one or more electrons.
A hydrogen bond is a relatively weak bond between two oppositely charged sides of two or more molecules. Water is a polar molecule.
Term —- Definition
chemical bond A force that holds atoms together.
covalent bond Electrons shared between atoms.
ionic bond A chemical bond in which atoms give or accept electrons.
metallic bond Attractive forces between freely moving electrons and positively charged metal ions.